Human papillomavirus is an oncogenic disease. The main manifestations of HPV are the formation of warts, papillomas and warts on the skin and mucous membranes. Both women and men are affected by the virus.
Causes of HPV occurrence and activation
Note! The main reason for the appearance of papilloma virus in the body is an infection from an infected person.
Factors that provoke infection include:
- weakened immunity;
- bad habits;
- frequent and severe nervous concussions;
- viral infections;
- pathology of the gastrointestinal tract;
- frequent change of sexual partners, unprotected sexual intercourse.
Can human papillomavirus be cured?
HPV in the active stage of development is treatable.
The main goal of treatment is to eliminate the symptoms and strengthen the defense mechanism of the human body.
Depending on the type of virus, symptoms and complications, different treatments can be used.
Can HPV be cured forever?
A characteristic feature of HPV is that when it enters the body, it settles in it forever. During periods when the body has a strong defense mechanism and is not exposed to the above risk factors, the virus is at rest and not activated.
With a decrease in the immune system, non-compliance with the rules of hygiene, deterioration of health, the papillomavirus can be reactivated.
Methods of papillomavirus infection
Infection with the HPV virus occurs through direct contact with an infected person, through the mucous membranes and skin. There are several ways to become infected:
- The main way is sexual contact. The probability of transmitting papillomavirus from an infected partner during unprotected intercourse is 60-70%. The risk increases significantly with frequent changes of partners. In the presence of microtrauma to the mucous membranes, infection is possible even during kissing or oral sex;
- HPV infection also occurs in everyday life: when using the same towels, utensils and hygiene products with an infected person. There is a risk of contracting the papilloma virus in public saunas, baths and swimming pools;
- Vertical transmission of the virus from the mother to the fetus during birth is also possible.
Why is the human papillomavirus dangerous?
All types of HPV can be divided into two categories: low-risk and high-risk oncogenic viruses. Groups of the second category are able to develop into cancer.
Note! HPV poses the greatest risk to women: highly oncogenic strains of the virus are most susceptible to them.
In women, papillomavirus can cause a number of diseases related to the reproductive system:
- pathology of the cervix: erosion, leukoplakia, adenocarcinoma, cancerous tumors;
- oncology of the external genitalia, anal area.
Also, the development of the disease is accompanied by the appearance of warts and papillomas on the genitals, limbs, armpits and neck. Neoplasms cause discomfort, interfere with hygiene and lead a normal life, so they should be discarded.
In men, the risk of developing HPV cancer is lower, but not excluded. In addition, acute papillomas can form on the penis, causing discomfort and interfering with normal sexual activity. Such neoplasms should be removed immediately.
Identification of the disease usually begins with a visual examination by a physician. During the examination, the mucous membranes and skin are examined, and it is especially necessary to carefully examine the areas where warts and papillomas most often form: the genital area, the armpits, the neck.
The main methods for diagnosing HPV include the following:
- Women should definitely undergo a colposcopy, examination of the cervix and vagina, as well as undergo cytology tests (scraping of the mucous membranes). If oncology is suspected, a biopsy may be additionally prescribed;
- PCR analysis (polymerase chain reaction). Allows you to identify the DNA of the virus from any material submitted for analysis;
- The Digene test is a more accurate analysis. According to its results, papillomavirus can be detected, its type recognized by DNA and the degree of malignancy determined.
General treatment regimen for HPV
There are currently no unified international protocols for the treatment of human papillomavirus. The two-component treatment regimens have worked best: they combine the removal of viral lesions by surgical methods and the simultaneous switching to special antiviral therapy. The effectiveness of this approach to the treatment of HPV is up to 90%.
Characteristics of treatment in children
When HPV is activated in a child, doctors primarily resort to conservative methods of therapy: the appointment of immunomodulators and vitamins, as well as local treatment of rashes with ointments, compresses.
Surgery is usually used only if warts and papillomas grow during the follow-up.
Characteristics of treatment during pregnancy
Note! HPV during childbirth has no pronounced negative effect on its development and the course of pregnancy in general.
The main recommendations for the treatment of papillomavirus during pregnancy:
- If the virus is detected before pregnancy, you should be treated immediately. This will normalize immunity and avoid thrush and other infections;
- It is desirable to plan the beginning of pregnancy at the end of the second cycle after treatment;
- The course of treatment for HPV during pregnancy should begin no earlier than the 28th week of pregnancy - the period when all the organs of the child are formed. This will help avoid the negative effects of drugs on the child's body.
treatment of papillomavirus
The main treatments for HPV are:
- taking specific antiviral drugs;
- course of immunomodulators;
- surgical removal of neoplasms (papillomas, warts);
- reducing the symptoms of the disease with the help of traditional medicine.
Important! The choice of drugs depends on the type of virus and the characteristics of the body. Only a doctor can prescribe a course of therapy and dosage of drugs, self-medication can worsen the situation.
The appointment of immunomodulators should be performed by a physician in accordance with the patient's immunogram - this will achieve a faster and more stable result.
Surgical approach (removal of growth)
The main goal of HPV surgery is to remove cells that have been modified by the virus from the body.
Removal can be done in several ways, depending on the characteristics of the disease and the doctor's indications:
- Electrocoagulation. Depending on the HPV group, the effectiveness of treatment varies from 80% to 95%;
- Laser rash removal. High efficiency, but there is a high probability of recurrence. In addition, the wounds after the procedure heal for a long time - up to 4 weeks;
- radiowave surgery. Used to remove single formations;
- Cryotherapy. Effectiveness - up to 65%, recurrence occurs in 40-50% of cases;
- Chemo-destructive agents. Applicable only for genital rash. Relatively low efficiency - no more than 40%.
Note! Alternative medicine should not be considered as a holistic method of treating HPV. However, they are an affordable and harmless way to reduce the active manifestation of the virus.
The most effective for papilloma virus are such folk remedies: fresh potato juice, steeply boiled string, a mixture of garlic and vinegar, kalanchoe leaves, tea tree oil.
They should be used in the form of compresses, bandages for external manifestations of HPV - papillomas, warts.
Prevent HPV recurrence
The main goals to prevent the recurrence of warts and papillomas are to strengthen the immune system and maintain hygiene at home and in public places. It is recommended:
- follow a proper diet;
- undergoing vitamin therapy;
- follow a normal work schedule, get enough sleep and relax completely;
- increase physical activity.
Important! Vaccination is an effective method of preventing HPV reactivation - it can be used to protect against the most dangerous groups of the virus for a long time.